Groundwater recharge rates in isolated and riverine wetlands. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to springs and. All rocks, sediments and soils can hold and transmit water, but the rate of movement of water is slow often only metres per year m yr1 compared to flow in rivers normally metres per second m s1. Wetlands are a great example of where groundwater becomes surface water. Barbierb a environmental economist, the world bank, 1818 h street, washington dc 20433, usa b reader, environment department, university of. Some replenish groundwater and some regulate river flows. The importance of groundwater d longwood university. The spatial and temporal distribution of the rainfall mainly controls the natural groundwater recharge. The aim of this paper is to partially value the groundwater recharge function of the wetlands by applying the production function approach to analysing groundwater use in irrigated agriculture. It also can contribute toward high quality water in lakes, rivers and streams. Different areas can recharge groundwater at different rates. Wetlands are a vital part of the american landscape. In some cases, groundwater discharge sites are obvious, through visible springs or by the presence of certain plant species. What do the worlds largest cave, resurgent movie actor john.
In arid regions, recharge occurs through the ephemeral streams, which flow through the wadi course but. The vietnamese mekong delta vmd comprises extensive river and canal networks, both natural and manmade, and has a history of extensive land use change and development. Because recharge is a difficult parameter to quantify, it is. They are natural harvesters of rainwater, acting as sinks into which surface water andor groundwater flows from the surrounding catchment. Summary of groundwaterrecharge estimates for pennsylvania by stuart o.
Buildinguponthis background information, the effects of artificial drainage of wetlands on groundwater recharge are discussed. It is generally accepted that wetlands are sites of groundwater discharge i. Groundwater recharge an overview sciencedirect topics. History of wetlands in the conterminous united states. Chapter 6 groundwater recharge this chapter presents the standards, data, and procedures necessary to meet the groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge can be defined as water added to the aquifer through the unsaturated zone after infiltration and percolation following any storm rainfall event. Aquifer recharge through managed wetlands for waterfowl jason a. Risser abstract groundwater recharge is water that infiltrates through the subsurface to the zone of saturation beneath the water table. Whenever water falls as rain or snow, some of the water absobs into the subsurface soil and rock.
Wetlands help maintain lake levels and river flows by storing. Yet groundwater flow and storage are continually changing in response to human and climatic stresses. The objectives of the wetland treatment programme are to evaluate a use of constructed wetlands as an alternative to conventional treatment, b feasibility of using constructed wetland systems for groundwater treatment, recharge, recovery and reuse. As a result from the discussions with representatives from the dutch hydrogeological community, the nnciah decided to focus its activities in 2001 2003 on management of aquifer recharge and subsurface storage. Its presence is dependent on the hydrological cycle, which is climate related. Understanding, maintaining, and protecting groundwater flow to these coastal areas is essential for protection of the species. Groundwater flow flow rate through geologic material controlled by. By focusing on agricultural production dependent solely on groundwater resources from the shallow aquifer, this study establishes that the groundwater recharge function of the wetlands is of significant importance for the floodplain. Aquifer recharge through managed wetlands for waterfowl. Groundwater recharge, water reuse, and wastewater recycling structures, including detention, retention and infiltration basins and ponds, that are constructed in upland or in nonjurisdictional waters.
In some places, wetlands can also recharge groundwater. Unesco eolss sample chapter groundwater groundwater rechargesophocleous m. Abstract the mississippi river valley alluvial aquifer ranks among the most overdrafted aquifers in the united states due to intensive irrigation. Wetlands play a vital role in the hydrological cycle. Many water flow processes of interest such as groundwater recharge are concerned only with areaaveraged water input. The recharge discharge function is an important but complicated part of wetland hydrology adamus and stockwell, 1983. Groundwater flows into aquifers as recharge and out as discharge. This type of stormwater facility is a combination of a surface marsh and a. According to these rules, a major development project, which is one that disturbs at least 1 acre of land or creates at least 0. Wise development of groundwater resources requires a more complete understanding of these changes in flow and storage and of their effects on. Valuing groundwater recharge through agricultural production. Water then moves through the saturated zone to groundwater discharge areas. The model was used to estimate that seepage from the wetlands will double groundwater discharge into the des plaines river and a tributary relative to.
One goal of this project is to evaluate wetlands treatment with respect to groundwater recharge potential. Overview of groundwater recharge and discharge groundwater recharge and discharge are important aspects of the. Groundwater recharge depends on several factors such as infiltration capacity, stochastic. The rechargedischarge function is an important but complicated part of wetland hydrology adamus and stockwell, 1983. Groundwater flows vertically and horizontally through the aquifers at rates that are in. Groundwater recharge depends on several factors such as infiltration capacity, stochastic characteristics of rainfall, and climate factors. Groundwater recharge and discharge are important aspects of the global hydrological.
Welfare change is calculated using the estimated production functions and hypothetical changes in groundwater recharge and hence, groundwater levels. Valuing groundwater recharge through agricultural production in the hadejianguru wetlands in northern nigeria gayatri acharyaa. Modelling groundwater recharge juser forschungszentrum julich. There are many natural processes that determine how much rainwater actually reaches and replenishes an aquifer instead of being evaporated, consumed by plants and animals, or simply running off the ground surface into streams, rivers. The reverse is also thought to be truethat wetlands recharge the aquifers and groundwater systems that provide the water many of us get from our faucets. Groundwater discharge is the process by which groundwater is discharged to the surface. Summary of groundwater recharge estimates for pennsylvania by stuart o. For areas where this practice is possible, it is reasonable to allow a groundwater recharge credit for it as a compensatory volume towards the natural recharge volume lost due to development. Surface that is the contact between saturated and unsaturated. Bonanza valley landowners now have a map to understand where they can restore wetlands most likely to recharge aquifers, while providing many other wetland restoration benefits.
Figure 1 shows how water recharges an unconfined aquifer and moves toward a river where it discharges. Other chemicals that travel from the surface unchanged can indicate sensitivity to contamination. Approximately 40 % of the worlds species depend on wetlands and threequarters of the breeding bird species in north america use wetlands at some point during their life. Surface and groundwater supply the groundwater recharge function of wetlands i. Groundwater pumping, often necessary for irrigation and municipal water supplies, can lead to significant problems such as land subsidence and the alteration of groundwater flow directions when overdraft occurs. Groundwater discharge to a wetland can originate nearby or from several miles away. Broderick underground water in harare, and everywhere, is a finite resource. Groundwater recharge through restorable wetlands wetland restorations can keep water on the land for long enough to soak into the soil and add water to aquifers. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to springs. Flow through the fractured dolomite in door county can be rapid, making the countys groundwater extremely vulnerable to contamination. By one estimate, the annual recharge to the groundwater system in the western counties of virginia is approximately 8 inches, and. Chapter 6 groundwater recharge this chapter presents the standards, data, and procedures necessary to meet the groundwater recharge requirements of the njdep stormwater management rules at n. Planning and investigations for groundwater recharge using. Zekai sen, in applied drought modeling, prediction, and mitigation, 2015.
Introduction to wetlands describes the conditions necessary for the formation of wetlands. Objectives our goal was to implement an incidental groundwater recharge program to augment lateseason flows in the teton river and buffer against annual hydrologic variability. This leads to slower responses of groundwater to recharge or. Summary of groundwaterrecharge estimates for pennsylvania. Guidelines for the management of groundwater to maintain. As the handbook makes clear, many wetlands worldwide have close associations with groundwater but these relationships are often complex and varied, in both space and time. Delineating areas contributing water to the springs is the. An intermediate system, characterized by one or more topographic highs and lows located between its recharge and discharge areas. Wetlands and people international water management. Other objectives include assessment of wildlife habitat.
Wetlands separated from a water of the united states by only a natural berm, bank or. Improve water quality and groundwater recharge provide flood acres into the wetlands protection offer farmers an alternative for frequently flooded cropland provide education and recreational opportunities sequester carbon to help reduce greenhouse gases aid in the recovery and prevent listing of rare and declining species. Wetland hydrologic and waterquality functions are the roles that wetlands play in modifying or controlling the quantity or quality of water moving through a wetland. Groundwater atlas user guide minnesota department of. Effects of wetlands creation on groundwater flow sciencedirect. Groundwater discharge can maintain a high water table in wetlands, whereas recharge to the underlying aquifers can replenish groundwater supplies.
Some wetlands are areas of groundwater recharge that may be linked to human uses. By focusing on agricultural production dependent solely on groundwater resources from the shallow aquifer, this study establishes that the groundwater recharge function of the wetlands is of. Groundwater discharge is a more common wetland function and can be important for stabilizing stream flows, especially during dry months. A major court case in woburn, massachusetts, revolved around the rate of flow of solvents through a groundwater system. The soil under most wetlands is relatively impermeable. Groundwater recharge, water reuse, and wastewater recycling structures, including. Pdf conservation of the mekong delta wetlands through.
Chapter 1 the importance of water quality 10 streams streams interact with groundwater in three ways. Water inputs to wetlands often include both surface runoff and groundwater inflow in various combinations. Aquifer recharge is the process by which rainwater seeps down through the soil into an underlying aquifer. Leaching environment, tends to lower nutrient and carbonate concentrations wetland recharges the groundwater groundwater discharge wetlands water moves from the groundwater into the wetland. These areas, often described as springs or seeps, provide continuous sources of base flow for many of wisconsins wetlands, lakes, rivers, and streams. The dynamic nature of groundwater is not readily apparent, except where discharge is focused at springs or where recharge enters sinkholes.
Hence, groundwater discharge can represent a significant control over ecosystems. Whether it is through the recreational opportunities that lakes and rivers provide, the recharge and purification of groundwater, protection from flooding, or as a source of food and wildlife habitat, wetlands provide many valuable services. Site characteristics that determine groundwater recharge in. For example, recharge is essential to the refilling of aquifers for water supply. A high perimeter to volume ratio, such as in small wetlands, means that the surface area through which water can infiltrate into the groundwater is high. In a consecutive step the depth of groundwater was allocated to the wetlands using. Kirkham, in principles of soil and plant water relations second edition, 2014. Streams can gain water from the inflow of groundwater through the streambed gaining stream, figure a. Recharge, an integral part of the hydrologic cycle, is the process by which water moves to the water table and then away from that area through saturated materials. Groundwater accounts of twothirds of the world s freshwater supply. Where wetlands are sources of groundwater recharge for aquifers, wetland conservation is an essential element in maintaining water resources. Quantifying groundwater recharge from detention basins to.
Groundwater discharge can feed lakes, streams, and wetlands and is part of the reason surface water bodies dont dry up between rains. Groundwater discharge through wetlands can enhance the aquatic life communities in downstream areas. Lesson wetland ecosystems freshwater marshes and swamps. Geological survey usgs has taken an active role in studies involving the estimation of areas contributing recharge to wells fig. Therefore, preferential flow of water through structural voids does not necessarily invalidate equations that assume homogeneous. Wetlands are also interconnected with our lakes and rivers. Copies are freely available in pdf format from the. Groundwater recharge wetland water moves from the wetland towards the water table which is lower in the surrounding landscape. The cumulative benefits of the wetlands restored through wrp reach well beyond their boundaries to. These openings can store large amounts of water, accounting for the high yields of wells in this area. Notes on the harare groundwater situation october, 2012. Notes on the harare groundwater situation october, 2012 t. Planning and investigations for groundwater recharge using wetland. An understanding of wetland functions and the underlying chemical, physical, and biological processes supporting these functions facilitates the management and protection of.
Some evaporates, some is taken up by plants, some wets the surfaces of particles, and some percolates to the water table. It depends on rainfall for its recharge to groundwater storage. Valuing groundwater recharge through agricultural production in the hadejianguru wetlands in northern nigeria article in agricultural economics 223. However, no tools were available to quantify the volume of groundwater recharge expected from this practice. Evaporation occurs when water from such surfaces as oceans, rivers, and ice is converted to vapor. The groundwater aspects of the multipurpose wetlands research and demonstration study can be divided into two major groups. Groundwater recharge occurs through mineral soils found primarily around the edges of wetlands. This type of stormwater facility is a combination of a surface marsh and a subsurface gravel bed. The level of the groundwater, below which the rocks or sediments are saturated, is called the water table figure 1.308 1285 553 1366 883 837 1394 721 1042 280 923 229 1085 867 50 238 1388 268 1088 244 615 1239 181 1093 355 1619 648 527 9 662 511 583 996 565 525 376 43 967 364 405 1074 1476 299 734 1041 1457 406