It also assesses the impact of farmer response on productivity and environmental sustainability. Urban environmental degradation in tanzania describes the environmental. Duraiappah, gerrishon ikiara, mutsembi manundu, wilfred nyangena and rueben sinange working paper no 33 august 2000 international institute for environment and development, london, and institute for environmental. Description of forest cover in the tanzanian northern highlands. United republic of tanzania secretariat of the convention on.
Michelsen institute t he environmental refugee has appeared in the literature on environment and security, and with it the refugee as both a cause and victim of conflict. This study examines farmer observation, interpretations of change indicators, and responses made by farmers to land soil degradation. Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of natural resources such as air, water and soil. However, what is a neglected field of research is the extent to which conflicts result in environmental degradation. Assessment of linkages between population dynamics and. Urban environmental degradation in tanzania describes the environmental problems evident in the urban areas of tanzania, especially its former capital and largest city, dar es salaam. Introduction uganda is a landlocked country in eastern africa and protection of the environment has been one of the key goals of the government of uganda. Environmental degradation, migration and conflict astri suhrke chr. Problems of underdevelopment such as poverty, ill health and others that plague the majority of tanzanians are as much environmental as they are developmental.
Box 490 dodoma, tanzania email of corresponding author. As the tanzanian proverb wisely says, when there is a will, there is a way. Resources are being depleted, with major developmental and environmental implications. Article information, pdf download for urban environmental degradation in. Land degradation cycle in marginal lands of tanzania source. National environment statistics report, 2017 nesr, 2017, dar es salaam, tanzania. Some fear environmental degradation will produce waves of.
Trends can be reversed, and environmental degradation can be curbed. The impact of environmental degradation on refugeehost. Nemc was established because there was high demand of a national institution to supervise environmental. In turn the poor are often dependent on environmental resources for livelihoods and energy leading to environmental degradation. Urban environmental degradation in tanzania describes the environmental problems evident in the urban areas of tanzania, especially its former capital and largest city. Tanzania is faced with a number of environmental problems. The questions that i sought to answer during my research and which i discuss in this paper are as follows. Environmental degradation leads to widespread poverty. Is conflict relating to the environment present between the refugee and. The depletion of forests is of great concern for environment and development in many developing countries, africa in particular. There should be policies and planning to conserve the environment although it seems to be challenging for tanzania to reverse the loss of its environmental resources unless a significant progress is made in the reduction of poverty levels because poverty is the biggest source of environmental degradation in tanzania. The fao 2005 estimates tanzanias annual rate of deforestation at 4,000 hectares per annum. Principles ofsustainable water resources management.
Design has become part of sustainability culture during a historical moment in which environmental degradation, inducted by human activity, emerges as a fact and begins to be officially cautioned. The environmental management act 2004 was finalized and enacted by parliament in november. Environmental education in tanzania is very much a reflection of a range of influencing factors which differentiate it from the north american or european context. A majority of tanzanians rely on wood and agricultural residues for their energy needs, causing deforestation and environmental degradation. This has resulted in conflict with officials in diagnosing and solving the problem and is a major constraint to the successful implementation of policies and projects to address land degradation. This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. Acidification the lowering of soil and water ph due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation. Land degradation and opportunities for sustainable. However, for the worlds most vulnerable and marginalized groups, issues of environmental degradation tend to be more localized and immediate in their nature. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry. Soil erosion in tanzania in pictures environment the. The international agenda often focuses on broadbased concerns of environmental degradation such as desertification, climate change and air pollution. In tanzania, land degradation has been ranked as the top environmental problem for more than 60 years assey et al.
It is caused directly or indirectly by anthropogenic activities that extract various environmental resources at a faster rate than they are replaced, and thus depleting them. The information contains data on tanzanias biophysical environmental features such as its ecosystems, geology, hydrology in terms of ground and surface water resources, major and sensitive wetlands, flora and fauna. Land tenure, land use, environmental degradation and conflict. The project brings together scientists from the uk and tanzania with the maasai people to find ways to overcome the challenges of soil erosion. The major environmental problems facing tanzania are land degradation, lack of accessible, good quality water for urban and rural inhabitants, environmental pollution, loss of wildlife. I may, 2009 printed by the government printer, dar es salaam, by order ofgovernment issn 0856033ix principles and objectives of water resources management 4. The preparation of this national communication strategy on environmental sustainability, growth and poverty reduction in tanzania involved various stakeholders whose efforts and inputs are worth mentioning. Local land users often have different perceptions and responses than officials to the land degradation problem. Environmental degradation in nigeria amos danladi abstract contemporary concern over polluted air docs not stem from any disenchantment with the fruits of industries in operation in nigeria.
The policy identifies six major environmental problems to be addressed, namely. Land tenure, land use, environmental degradation and conflict resolution. Similar results were found in ghana, tanzania, zimbabwe, botswana and many others across the continent 11, 12. Environmental degradation comes about due to erosion and decline of the quality of the natural environment. First of all, i extend my appreciation to the drafting team led by prof. Linking environmental degradation to household material welfare. Land degradation has been a top ranked environmental problem before and.
Deforestation and forest degradation are some of the challenges facing the forest sector in tanzania kessy, 1998. National environment management authority nema and uganda bureau of statistics ubos. Review of the decentralization process and its impact on environmental and natural resources management in tanzania. Urban environmental degradation in tanzania michael yhdego. Furthermore, environmental degradation and diminishing environmental resources are linked to several conflicts from international to intranationallocal levels. Reducing impact of land degradation in tanzania semantic scholar. A needs assessment for training institute of resource assessment, dar es salaam, tanzania and international institute for environment and development, london, uk august 1995 ira research paper no. The devastating effects of environmental degradation a case. Technical support was provided by the united nations. These are not only increasing human vulnerability and health insecurity but also draining the country. Environmental education in secondary schools in tanzania like other countries in the world, tanzania has responded through international. Unsustainable use of forests has resulted in severe environmental problems, especially land degradation which is manifested by soil erosion.
These concerns are linked to overuse or misuse of the natural resources base. Our environment is deteriorating for the last two centuries and almost every part of the planet has been touched by it in one way or the other. These results suggest that not only do economics play less of a role than previously thought, there are additional factors that limit the uptake of more modern fuels, especially in least. Environmental degradation and intra household welfare core. Tanzania has about 48 million ha of forest cover which is approximately 55% of her forest and woodland cover malimbwi, 2014.
Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in kilwa district. On social baselines the report discusses the main features of tanzanias demographics, public health features and poverty. Contribution of nemc to the tanzania social economic database the national environment management council nemc was established in 1983 when the government of tanzania enacted the national environment management act no. Deforestation and forest degradation is ultimately driven by the demand for timber and other forest. Land degradation and opportunities for sustainable management of kagera river basintanzania f. The devastating effects of environmental degradation a case study of the niger delta region of nigeria fig working week 2009 surveyors key role in accelerated development eilat, israel, 38 may, 2009 214 the devastating effects of environmental degradation a case study of the niger delta region of nigeria angela kesiena etuonovbe, nigeria 1. Thus, the conditions in tanzania are such that environment related conflict is likely martin, 2005. Arrangement of sections part i preliminary provisions section title 1. The impact of environmental degradation on refugeehost relations. Sep 23, 2012 this paper has assessed the extent to which tanzanias postunced policies and strategies address the recent challenges of climate change on land degradation as reported by the ipcc in 2007. Land degradation is a major problem in many areas of tanzania. Economics of land degradation and improvement in tanzania and. Recognizing this, i chose to pursue an indepth case study on the effects of environmental degradation on the refugeehost relationship in northwestern tanzania, and do not argue that all refugee. Gibsona school of animal, plant and environmental sciences university of the witwatersrand, johannesburg, south africa submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of science in resource conservation biology supervisor.614 1125 933 785 857 318 125 1125 38 298 715 410 835 500 1409 617 973 1316 27 413 476 1129 52 1117 1151 1074 653 1260 1564 216 405 578 1394 1449 1388 1578 1256 332 1266 905 770 1284 1291 1462 697 128